domingo, 21 de agosto de 2011


PAST PERFECT TENSE

Usa-se o Past Perfect para expressar:

a) uma ação que aconteceu antes de outra ação no passado.

Ex: When I arrived, she had already left.
(Quando eu cheguei, ela já havia partido).

Forma Afirmativa:


O Past Perfect é um tempo verbal composto (possui dois verbos) e é formado pelo passado simples do verbo auxiliar to have (had) e o particípio passado do verbo principal. Observe a conjugação de dois verbos no Past Perfect na tabela abaixo:
To work = trabalhar to go = ir
Conjugação Forma contraída Conjugação Forma contraída

<><> <><> <><> <><><>
I had worked
you had worked
he had worked
she had worked
It had worked
we had worked
you had worked
they had worked
I’d worked
You’d worked
he’d worked
she’d worked
It’d worked
we’d worked
you’d worked
They’d worked
I had gone
you had gone
he had gone
she had gone
It had gone
we had gone
you had gone
they had gone
I’d gone
You’d gone
He’d gone
she’d gone
It’d gone
we’d gone
you’d gone
They’d gone


Forma Negativa:

Para se formar frases negativas no Past Perfect, basta acrescentar a partícula de negação not depois do verbo auxiliar to have (had). A forma contraída do verbo to have com a partícula de negação é possível também no Past Perfect. Observe a tabela abaixo com a conjugação de dois verbos.



to work = trabalhar to go = ir
Forma Negativa Forma Contraída Forma Negativa Forma Contraída


<><> <><> <><> <><><>
I had not worked
you had not worked he had not worked
she had not worked
It had not worked
we had not worked you had not worked
they had not worket
I hadn’t worked
You hadn’t worked
he hadn’t worked
she hadn’t worked
It hadn’t worked
we hadn’t worked
you hadn’t worked
They hadn’t worked
I had not gone
you had not gone
he had not gone
she had not gone
It had not gone
we had not gone
you had not gone
they had not gone
I hadn’t gone
You hadn’t gone
He hadn’t gone
she hadn’t gone
It hadn’t gone
we hadn’t gone
you hadn’t gone
They hadn’t gone


Forma Interrogativa
Para formar frases interrogativas, deve-se inverter a posição do pronome (sujeito) com o verbo auxiliar to have (had) e incluir o ponto de interrogação no final da frase. Observe a conjugação de dois verbos na forma interrogativa na tabela abaixo.

to work = trabalhar to go = ir


<><> <><> <><> <><><>
Had I worked ?
Had you worked?
Had he worked?
Had she worked?
Had it worked?
Had we worked?
Had you worked?
Hadthey worked?
Had I gone ?
Had you gone?
Had he gone?
Had she gone?
Had it gone?
Had we gone?
Had you gone?
Had they gone?


Short Answers (Respostas Curtas)
to work =trabalhar Short Answer Sim Short Answer– Não


<><> <><> <><> <><><>
Had I worked ?
Had you worked?
Had he worked?
Had she worked?
Had it worked?
Had we worked?
Had you worked?
Had they worked


Yes, I had.
Yes, you had.
Yes, he had.
Yes, she had.
Yes, It had.
Yes, we had.
Yes, you had.
Yes,they had




No, I hadn’t.
No, you hadn’t.
No, he hadn’t.
No, she hadn’t.
No, It hadn’t.
No, we hadn’t.
No, you hadn’t.
No, they hadn’t.



to go =ir Short Answer Sim Short Answer– Não


<><> <><> <><> <><><>
Had I gone ?
Had you gone?
Had he gone?
Had she gone?
Had it gone?
Had we gone?
Had you gone?
Had theygone?
Yes, I had.
Yes, you had.
Yes, he had.
Yes, she had.
Yes, It had.
Yes, we had.
Yes, you had.
Yes, they had
No, I hadn’t.
No, you hadn’t.
No, he hadn’t.
No, she hadn’t.
No, It hadn’t.
No, we hadn’t.
No, you hadn’t.
No, they hadn’t.




ESTUDO DIRIGIDO


1 Quando é usado o Past Perfect?
______________________________________________________



2 Como é formada a afirmativa do Past Perfect?
_____________________________________________________.



3 Como são as formas negativa e interrogativa do Past Perfect?
____________________________________________________.

EXERCÍCIOS RESOLVIDOS


1 Complete a frase “The incident gave me a better understanding than I_______________________________ (to have).before” com o verbo (em parêntese) no Past Perfect e depois marque a alternativa correta:
a) had have. b) had has. c) had had. d) had having.


Resolução: O Past Perfect é formado por dois verbos: o passado simples do verbo to have e o particípio passado do verbo principal. Assim, a frase deve ser completada com had (passado simples do verbo to have) e had (particípio passado do verbo
principal to have). Então, a alternativa correta é a letra ______________________c.


2 Marque a alternativa que tenha a forma da frase “Pedro drank a lot” no Past Perfect.
a) Pedro has drunk a lot b) Pedro had drunk a lot.
c) Pedro had drank a lot. d) Pedro have drunk a lot.

Resolução: A frase está no passado simples (drank é o passado simples do verbo to drink). Para transformá-la no Past Perfect, deve-se usar o passado simples do verbo to have (had) e o particípio passado do verbo principal to drink (drunk). Então a frase ficaria: “Pedro had drunk a lot”. A resposta correta é a letra ________________b.

EXERCÍCIOS

1 Marque a alternativa que completa corretamente
a frase “We ___________________ (to study)English” no Past Perfect.
a) have study. b) has study. c) had studyed. d) had studied.

2 Marque a alternativa que completa corretamente
a frase “Roberto ________________ (to write) another song” no Past Perfect.
a) had wrote. b) had written. c) have wrote. d) have written.

3 Qual é a altenativa que completa corretamente a
frase “The nurses _________________ the front door”?
a) hadn’t lock. b) not had lock. c) hadn’t locked. d) had locked not.

4 Qual é a alternativa que completa corretamente a frase “__________ they __________ anything before they met me?”?
a) Had – do. b) Had – done. c) Had – did. d) Had – does.

5 Qual é a forma negativa da frase “ It had been a good idea”?
a) It not had been a good idea. b) It had not been a good idea.
c) It had been not a good idea. d) Not it had been a good idea.

6 Qual é a forma interrogativa da frase “We had saved water”?
a) Have we saved water? b) We had saved water?
c) Had we saved water? d) Did we had saved water?


7 Qual é a forma correta da frase “I looked at my dog” no Past Perfect?
a) I has looked at my dog. b) I have looked at my dog.
c) I had look at my dog. d) I had looked at my dog.

8 Marque a alternativa que complete corretamente a frase “When I go to the office my boss _____”.
a) had already left b) already had left.
c) have already left. d) already have left.

Outra explicação
Past Perfect

O Past Perfect é usado para descrever uma ação que ocorreu no passado, antes de outra ação também passada. Observe as formas e os usos deste tempo verbal:

FORMAS:



O Past Perfect é formado com o passado simples do verbo to have (had), que funciona como auxiliar do verbo principal, seguido do past participle (particípio passado) do verbo principal. Lembre-se de que o particípio passado dos verbos regulares terminam em -ed e os verbos irregulares possuem forma própria (ver verbos irregulares). Observe as formas desse tempo verbal:



- FORMA AFIRMATIVA:
The film had already started when we got to the cinema.(O filme já tinha começado quando chegamos ao cinema.)

Compare: The film started when we got to the cinema - As duas ações ocorreram ao mesmo tempo, diferente do que ocorre no Past Perfect, onde ambas ações ocorrem no passado, porém uma antes da outra.


The mall had already closed when I arrived there. (O shopping já tinha fechado quando cheguei lá.)



<><> <><> <><> <><><>
AFFIRMATIVE FORM: SUJEITO + PASSADO SIMPLES DO VERBO TO HAVE (HAD) + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL



- FORMA NEGATIVA:
A Forma Negativa do Past Perfect forma-se acrescentando not ao verbo auxiliar, que é o passado simples do verbo to have (had).

* FORMA CONTRAÍDA: HAD + NOT = HADN'T

The couch got soaked because they had not closed the window while it was raining. (O sofá ficou encharcado porque eles não tinham fechado a janela enquanto estava chovendo.)



<><> <><> <><> <><><>
I hadn't heard you knocking the door because I was sleeping.(Não ouvi você bater na porta porque estava dormindo.)
Peter hadn't realized that the place was so dangerous.(Pedro não tinha se dado conta de que o lugar era tão perigoso.)




<><> <><> <><> <><><>
NEGATIVE FORM: SUJEITO + HAD + NOT (HADN'T) + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL



- FORMA INTERROGATIVA:



Na Forma Interrogativa do Past Perfect, o verbo had posiciona-se antes do sujeito da oração:



<><> <><> <><> <><><>
Had the train already left when you got to the station? (O trem já tinha partido quando você chegou à estação?)
Had you already had dinnner when I called to you?
(
Você já tinha jantado quando eu liguei?)
Had she read the book before seeing the movie?(Ela tinha lido o livro antes de assistir ao filme?)


<><> <><> <><> <><><>
INTERROGATIVE FORM: HAD + SUJEITO + PARTICÍPIO PASSADO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL


GABARITO


Estudo dirigido
1 O Past Perfect é usado para expressar uma ação que aconteceu antes de outra ação no passado.


2 O Past Perfect é formado pelo passado simples do verbo auxiliar to have (had) e o particípio passado do verbo principal. Exemplo: They had left before I arrived (Eles haviam saído antes de eu chegar).


3 Para se formar frases negativas no Past Perfect, basta acrescentar a partícula de negação not depois do verbo auxiliar to have (had). Exemplo:

They had not left before I arrived. (Eles não haviam saído antes de eu chegar). E para formar frases interrogativas deve-se inverter a posição do pronome (sujeito) com o verbo auxiliar to have (had) e incluir o ponto de interrogação no final da frase. Exemplo: Had they left before I arrived?


(Eles haviam saído antes de eu chegar?).


Exercícios

1 D 2 A 3 C 4 B 5 B 6 C 7 D 8 A

Esse conteúdo foi retirado de outros blogs e reformulado por mim.

Um comentário:

Anônimo disse...

Gostei do blog, bem organizado e coerente, me ajudou e muito em minhas pesquisas.